MIKON bidrar med ny kunnskap om miljøeffekter av næringsutvikling i nord. Miljøeffekter er definert som den samlede påvirkningen på økosystemer, kulturminner og samfunn. Forskningen er tverrfaglig, og skal søke løsninger på miljøproblemer og fremme bærekraft.
Klimaendringer, globalisering, ressursutnyttelse, utvikling av ny infrastruktur, industriutvikling og befolkningsendringer er drivkrefter som endrer nordområdene. Bærekraftig utvikling handler om å styre utviklingen slik at vi på lang sikt sikrer livskraftige samfunn, biologisk mangfold, rike økosystemer og lokale kulturer og tradisjoner. MIKON skal bidra med relevant vitenskapelig kunnskap som skal hjelpe oss å nå disse målene.
De rike naturressursene i nord har vært utnyttet i uminnelige tider, og produkter som dyreskinn, hvalrosstenner, pelsverk, tørrfisk og hvalolje har blitt eksportert i store mengder til sør. I dag ser verden mot nord for utvikling av fiskerier, turisme, havbruk, petroleumsressurser og mineralvirksomhet. MIKON undersøker miljøkonsekvensene av denne næringsutviklingen.
Økosystembasert forvaltning handler om å avveie ulike interesser som påvirker og henter goder fra naturen på en slik måte at økosystemets evne til å levere naturgoder ikke ødelegges. MIKON leverer kunnskap til økosystembasert forvaltning i nord. I 2016 støtter MIKON disse prosjektene:
- VULRES-Ecosystem vulnerability assessment of resources in the Ecosystem vulnerability assessment of resources in the Barents Sea. VULRES analyserer og kartlegger den økologiske sårbarheten til bunnfisk i Barentshavet med hensyn til fiske. Prosjektet er spesielt relevant for forvaltningsplanarbeidet i Barentshavet.
- NEBA -Net Environmental Benefit Analysis Tool to Assess the Environmental Effects of Arctic Oil Spills and Oil Spill Response Technologies. NEBA utvikler et verktøy som skal brukes til å identifisere den beste teknologiske responsen på uhellsutslipp av petroleum i Arktis. Verktøyet baseres på en kunnskapsbase om miljøforhold og miljøkonsekvenser i Arktis. Dette er et stort internasjonalt flerårig forskerprosjekt som MIKON delfinansierer sammen med oljeindustrien.
- OHiT -Ocean Health in Transition. OHiT utvikler en indeks, “Kystbarometeret”, som måler tilstanden til kystøkosystemene i Nord Norge. Kystbarometeret er basert på den internasjonale Ocean Health Index, og vil være et viktig bidrag til økosystembasert forvaltning langs Norskekysten.
- CULRES-Mapping and monitoring cultural heritage sites and environments in the Svalbard Archipelago. CULRES undersøker hvordan droner sammen med nye måleinstrumenter og teknologier kan brukes til å kartlegge og overvåke kulturminner på nordvest-kysten av Svalbard.
Nye næringer i nord produserer en rekke stressfaktorer som samlet påvirker naturmiljøet. MIKON undersøker mulige effekter på alle nivåer. I 2016 støtter MIKON følgende prosjekter:
- FIMITA -Fate and Impact of MIne Tailings on marine Arctic ecosystems . FIMITA undersøker miljøeffektene av sjødeponier av mineralavfall fra gruveindustrien i nordnorske fjorder. Man undersøker effektene på bunnlevende organismer, på fjordøkosystemet, samt de samfunnsmessige konsekvensene.
- MINEXRIM -Mineral Extraction in the High North – Radiological Risks, Impacts and Mitigation. Avgangsmasser fra gruvevirksomhet kan inneholde naturlige radionuklider (NORM). Det finnes lite kunnskap om hvordan NORM som slippes ut i miljøet sammen med metaller og eventuelt organiske miljøgifter påvirker organismer og økosystemer. Dette forskningsprosjektet vil undersøke effekter på utvalgte organismer som er relevante for Nord-Norge.
- ACON -Arctic Cetaceans and Ocean Noise. ACON bruker automatiske lyttebøyer til å undersøke hvordan støy fra skipstrafikk og seismisk skyting i Arktis påvirker truede hvalarter. Lyttebøyene fanger opp lyd både fra menneskelig aktivitet og hvalsang fra ulike hvalarter. Data fra disse bøyene kan dermed brukes til å undersøke konflikten mellom hvalenes aktivitet og tilstedeværelse og menneskelig aktivitet.
- MODEST -Development of model for prediction of eutrofication and sedimentation from fish cage farms. MODEST utvikler modeller for spredning av organisk avfall fra oppdrettsanlegg og vurderer av potensielle biologiske effekter av utslippene. Prosjektet er en videreføring av flere års fokusert innsats rettet mot utvikling av numeriske oseanografiske modeller i Framsenteret.
Natur, samfunn og kultur er nært sammenvevd, og industriutvikling vil påvirke dette samspillet. MIKON undersøker integrerte miljøeffekter på samfunn, kulturminner og natur i nord. I 2016 støtter MIKON følgende prosjekter:
- ECOURCHIN -Sea urchin harvest: ecosystem recovery, integrated management of social-ecological system, ecosystem service and sustainability. ECOURCHIN undersøke hvordan utvikling av industribasert høsting av kråkeboller påvirker kystøkosystemet og økosystemtjenester. Prosjektet har som målsetning å utvikle en integrert forvaltningsstrategi for bærekraftige sosio-økologiske systemer.
- RCONNECTED -The impact of extractive industries and tourism on socio-ecological dynamics in the Arctic. Nyere studier tyder på at miljøeffektene av industriaktiviteter kan variere vesentlig mellom regioner avhengig av sosioøkonomiske forhold og tilgjengelighet (remoteness). Rconnected undersøker hvordan ekstraktiv industri og turisme påvirker den sosio-økologiske dynamikken i ulike regioner rundt Polhavet.
- ECCO -Ecosystem services and coastal governance. ECCO undersøker hvordan økosystemtjenester, og spesielt kulturelle økosystemtjenester, kan implementeres som viktige begreper i konsekvensutredningsmetodikk.
Indigenous-industry governance interactions in the Arctic. Environmental impacts and knowledge basis for management (IndGov)
Kontakt: Camilla Brattland firstname.lastname@example.org
Ocean Health in Transition (OHiT)
Kontakt: Per Fauchald email@example.com
The impact of extractive industries and tourism on socio-ecological dynamics in the Arctic (Rconnected)
Kontakt: Vera Helene Hausner firstname.lastname@example.org
Does aquaculture act as a source of micro- and macro plastic in the Arctic? – A pilot study (Aqua-Plast)
Kontakt: Dorte Herzke email@example.com
Oil Spill Modelling in Ice Covered Ocean – and environmental consequences (OSMICO)
Kontakt: Lars R. Hole firstname.lastname@example.org
How to avoid conflicts between wild and farmed salmonids? -Finding good locations for aquaculture (AquaLoc)
Kontakt: Jenny L.A. Jensen email@example.com
Soundscapes in a Changing Arctic – Noise and Biota (SCAN-B)
Kontakt: Kit M. Kovacs firstname.lastname@example.org
Sensitivity of polar cod early life stages to a changing Arctic: A study of the impact of petroleum and elevated temperature (Sens2change)
Kontakt: Jasmine Nahrgang email@example.com
Pollutant Availability and Mobility in Environmental Risk Assessment management tools (PAMERA)
Kontakt: Kristine B. Pedersen firstname.lastname@example.org
Seabird moulting and chick rearing area in relation to planned oil activity in the southeastern Barents Sea (SeabirdOil)
Kontakt: Kjell Einar Erikstad email@example.com
Productivity effects in reindeer from changes in human land use – improving snow and vegetation map layers to facilitate sustainable land use (ReinLand)
Kontakt: Audun Stien firstname.lastname@example.org
Ecosystem services and coastal governance (ECCO)
Kontakt: Alma Thuestad email@example.com
Managing Variable Environmental Values (ManVar)
Kontakt: Ellen Øseth firstname.lastname@example.org
Development of MODel for prediction of Eutrofication and SedimenTation from fish cage farms (MODEST)
Kontakt: Ole Anders Nøst email@example.com
Oil Spill Modelling in Ice Covered Ocean – and environmental consequences (OSMICO II)
Lars Robert Hole
OSMICO aims at providing an simplistic oil/ice/biology drift framework and assessment tool. The service will be open for relevant users in Norway, while the drift framework is open source. To the best of our knowledge, this will provide the first operational system for oil in sea ice. In order to demonstrate potential applications of the model system, case studies will be performed in which statistical distributions of virtual oil spills will be explicitly compared to the distributions of selected key Arctic species.
How to avoid conflicts between wild and farmed salmonids? -Finding good locations for aquaculture.
Jenny L.A. Jensen
This proposal is for the third study year of three. The aquaculture industry in Norway is faced with a number of challenges today, whereof spreading of the parasite salmon lice from fish farms to wild anadromous salmonids is the largest and most pressing. The proposed project will use electronic tracking to study the migratory behavior of Arctic charr and brown trout in the Alta fjord (N70 03.000 E23 05.000). It will also perform oceanographic modelling of currents, temperatures and salinity in the fjord system. The project will combine the fish migratory behavior data with the oceanographic data with the aim of understanding not only where in the fjord the fishes reside, but why they stay in different fjord areas. By understanding which underlying factors controls the migratory behavior, the knowledge can be transferred to other populations and other fjord systems. With this understanding, the ultimate goal of the project is to be able to give knowledge based advice on best localization of new fish farms in the Alta and other fjord systems. These advices will be based on advanced oceanographic modelling of currents, temperature and salinities, and will also include models of how the parasite larvae are spread from the fish farming localities with currents in the fjord. The proposed project will be part of a larger similar project on Atlantic salmon smolts. With the inclusion of the proposed project, a complete picture of all naturally occurring Norwegian salmonids in relation to aquaculture activities can be achieved.
Sensitivity of sexually matured polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to the water-soluble fraction of crude oil under low and high food regimes
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
Arctic marine organisms experience high variation in food availability over an annual cycle, causing strong seasonal fluctuations in the energy metabolism of an organism. Energy homeostasis is, however, a prerequisite to perform biological processes such as reproductive development, growth and allocate energy to endogenous defense mechanisms in response to pollution events. Increased industrial activities related to oil production and transport are projected for the Northern Barents Sea in near future, which implicate the risk for oil pollution in Arctic waters. The present study aims to examine the sensitivity of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), a key species of the Arctic marine ecosystem, to petroleum compounds during polar night. Polar cod spawns in early winter and utilizes the majority of its energy reserves for reproduction, which is partially restored through food intake in early spring. We hypothesize that low energy reserves related to restricted food access and reproduction render polar cod more sensitive to petroleum exposure and alter post-spawning recovery. Polar cod will be exposed to the water-soluble fraction of crude oil in an experiment that simulate a winter oil spill scenario and will also be subjected to different food regimes from a late gonadal maturation stage (December) until post-spawning (March). Fish sensitivity will be examined with biomarkers related to energy allocation, fecundity and growth. Additionally, ultrasonography will be used to determine the sex of polar cod prior to experiment start, a new method to decrease inter-specific variability in sex ratio between treatment groups and thereby increase the significance of experimental results.
CurBES – Cumulative impacts of the linear infrastructure associated with industrial development on biodiversity and ecosystem services
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
Arctic regions are subject to intense global interest as melting sea ice and large infrastructure projects increase opportunities for industrial development. Designing and delivering sustainable futures for northern regions requires systematic approaches and tools that consider the cumulative, landscape-wide changes to socioecological systems, and subsequent changes to biodiversity and ecosystem services that go along with development. CurBES will synthesis baseline, quantitative spatial data on the impacts of industry-related linear infrastructure on biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) in northern Norway over the past 30 years. This project will draw on existing datasets on the impacts of linear infrastructure, spatial locations of ecosystem services in northern Norway, and our expertise in systematic land-use planning. CurBES will aid planners to evaluate trade-offs and design futures that minimise cumulative impacts on threatened biodiversity and valued ecosystem services, while maintaining opportunities for long-term economic security. It will further support decision-makers in the sustainable development of northern regions by delivering guidelines and policy recommendations for incorporating cumulative impacts and ecosystem services into land-use planning.
Current and future vulnerability of Arctic-breeding seabirds to anthropogenic stressors
NINA – Norsk institutt for naturforskning
Sustainable use of marine resources requires that areas of high vulnerability of marine ecosystems to human activities are adequately identified so that relevant resource-management policies can be developed. With the retreating Arctic sea ice human activities will expand northward, parallel to many marine species, including seabirds. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) are often proposed as tools that can help achieve sustainable use of marine resources. However, sound MSP and EBM require adequate scientific data about the distribution of marine species at spatiotemporal scales matching the high environmental variability inherent in northern marine ecosystems.
Our project will provide stakeholders involved in MSP with a high-resolution spatially-explicit assessment of the vulnerability of seabirds to industrial and commercial activities. We will utilize novel datasets on seabirds and industrial activities to deliver baseline data on the current and future spatial conflict between seabird populations and industrial activities on a North-East Atlantic scale. Data on seabird’s monthly distribution and abundance will be obtained from a parallel project, SEATRACK (http://www.seapop.no/en/seatrack). First, we will determine the current spatial conflict between North-East Atlantic seabirds and fisheries, oil and gas activities and shipping. Second, we will project the probable shifts in seabirds’ distribution and abundance following predicted changes in climate over the next decades and compare these shifts to the planned fishing activities and their potential northward expansion following the retreating Arctic sea ice. This project will result in the mapping of the current and future high-vulnerability areas of pelagic Arctic-breeding seabirds throughout their annual cycle.
Indigenous-industry governance interactions in the Arctic. Environmental impacts and knowledge basis for managment (IndGov).
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
IndGov targets main rights- and stakeholders in the intersection between indigenous communities and extractive industries. Connected to the NFR project “the Arctic Governance Triangle” (TriArc), IndGov works towards integration of knowledge of indigenous use in the knowledge basis for resource management and spatial planning in northern communities. The case areas and studies involves intersections between indigenous traditional land use (including reindeer husbandry) and extractive industries such as mining, green energies, and the aquaculture industry. A particular emphasis is placed on learning from “best practices” in industry-indigenous governance interactions. IndGov aims to learn from successful indigenous-industry governance arrangement as well as traditional knowledge integration that facilitate indigenous wellbeing. This project will through rights- stakeholders’ contributions (three workshops), identify indicators for socio-ecological and indigenous wellbeing with relevance for environmental impact assessments and ecosystem-based management.
Toxicity of salmon lice pesticides on a key North-Norwegian marine species, Pandalus borealis
Gro Harlaug Refseth
The use of delousing agents (chemicals used to kill lice in farmed fish) in the aquaculture industry is currently high. This project addresses potential effects of delousing agents on the surrounding environment. Releases of these pesticides from fish farms may affect non-target species in the surrounding habitat, such as Pandalus borealis, an ecologically and economically important species in Northern Norway. We will assess sensitivity of P. borealis to azametiphos, a delousing agent, in laboratory experiments. We will also measure environmental concentrations of azametiphos near fish farms, based on passive sampling techniques developed as part of the 2017 incentive funds «ToolSalmon» project. Ecotoxicological metrics (e.g threshold value for effect) for use in risk assessments will be obtained from laboratory studies and literature review. Results will be compared to measured field concentrations. In addition, we will perform a literature review on mode of action of the different delousing agents to elucidate if usage of these pesticides can be associated to observations of mass death of marine crustaceans and possible food-chain related effects. This project will generate and disseminate critical new knowledge of the potential impact of salmon fish farming on the surrounding marine environment that is essential for decision-makers to balance multi-sectoral interests in coastal zone resources (IMR, 2016). Within this context, the project contributes to the aim of balancing costal ecosystem health and resource utilization.
Productivity effects in reindeer from changes in human land use – improving snow and vegetation map layers to facilitate sustainable land use.
NINA – Norsk institutt for naturforskning
Habitat fragmentation and loss of biodiversity due to human land-area pressure is internationally recognized as a main threat to the earth’s ecosystems and their ability to supply ecosystem services. A pressing task is to develop methods that can be used by management authorities to promote sustainable land use. The NRC-project PRODCHANGE (NRC project number: 255635) focus on how the habitat use and productivity of wild and semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway are affected by cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and altered disturbance regimes. In northern Norway, the effect of new windfarms and opencast mines are of particular focus as these industrial activities are currently threatening the traditional reindeer herding industry. The methodological framework adopted is designed to allow ecological processes studied in detail in a selected set of reindeer populations, to be scaled up to predict consequences of altered land use on a nation-wide scale, and will also be highly relevant in terms of linking land management and the productivity of herbivore populations in other parts of the Arctic. Two important variables in the model development is the nutrient content of the vegetation and the snow conditions during the winter season. The project “Productivity effects in reindeer from changes in human land use – improving snow and vegetation map layers” will contribute to PRODCHANGE by 1) providing supplementary measurements of vegetation quality in habitat types available for reindeer populations, and 2) by generating improved snow maps. These contributions will improve the quality of the data available to PRODCHANGE and increase both the involvement of member institutions of the Fram Centre and international collaboration in PRODCHANGE.
ESCE – Ecological Status of Coastal Ecosystems in Northern Norway
The oceans are becoming a major arena for economic growth, addressing global challenges such as food security, poverty and provision of natural resources and energy. To guide management, Norway has recently launched a system for assessing the status of Norwegian ecosystems using seven targets describing ecosystem state and function. In ESCE we propose to use the coastal ecosystems of Northern Norway as a scientific test-bed for evaluating the new framework. Building on datasets and knowledge developed in a series of projects funded by MIKON and NRC, we will critically implement relevant indicators and investigate how the suggested targets of ecosystem status relate to indices of coastal fisheries, aquaculture, nature-based tourism and local peoples’ preferences. The project will address questions of general relevance to management and ecosystem and sustainability sciences: What is the relationship between ecosystem status and the provision of ecosystem services? What are the combined impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the status of the ecosystem?
Governing environmental and social aspects of salmon farming in four northern countries (FourSalmon)
Kine Mari Karlsen
The Arctic is richly endowed with resources, which presents both challenges and opportunities for the Northern communities. Intensive aquaculture is a relatively new industry that has become important for regional development in some rural areas. There is also a general expectation of further growth. However, there are challenges both related to environmental, social and economic impacts of the industry. The sustainability of the industry therefore has to be ensured to maintain the integrity and resilience of the socio-ecological system (SES). This underlines the need for a knowledge-based governance system that are able to take the various aspects of salmon farming into consideration.
As salmon farming represents an intensification of industrial activity in Northern and Arctic areas, there is an urgent need for comprehensive knowledge of how to govern the environmental and social aspects of this development. The aim of the project is to study how governance of environmental and social impacts of salmon farming development in Canada, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway is organized and carried out. The comparison and synthesizing of knowledge on governance systems within the involved countries will provide new insights to the authorities, aquaculture industry, researchers and other stakeholders, and thereby strengthen the development of sustainable approaches to industrial expansion in the North.
A Traditional Ecological Knowledge Database for Planning and Impact Assessments (TRACE)
Sanne Bech Holmgaard
NIKU – Norsk institutt for kulturminneforskning
TRACE will investigate ways of integrating of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in planning and impact assessments. Using available data from the review assignments for the on-going investigation on traditional land rights by the Finnmark Commission and experiences with mapping TEK done by NIKU and the project partner Centre for Sami Studies, TRACE will investigate the applicability of this data for use in planning and impact assessments. TRACE will review technical options as well as ethical and legal issues related to making TEK available to planners and other users. The project will develop a pilot version of a map-based database of TEK and explore issues of ownership and relevance with stakeholders. Through these objectives and deliverables, TRACE will contribute to solutions to the challenge of how to follow up on national and international obligation to include TEK in planning and impact assessment.
UiT Norges arktiske universitet
AMINOR – the Research School in Environmental Research of the FRAM Centre – provides a communication and educational platform for scientists and environmental managers, focusing on the integration of monitoring, science and management across several scientific disciplines. It is a multidisciplinary research network connecting members across all flagships represented at the FRAM Centre. The main focus groups are researchers, PhD and master students from diverse scientific disciplines: statistics, oceanography, meteorology, terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecology, economics and political/social science. AMINOR aims at promoting the use and development of theory, excellent study designs and appropriate analytical methods in both research and management, through workshops, group discussions and courses. Such a strong scientific framework is paramount to rigorous monitoring of ecosystems, hence creating better conditions to answer scientific and management questions.