De faglige prioriteringene er fokusert på økologiske responser av klima og andre påvirkningsfaktorer på tre nivåer: arter, næringskjeder og økosystemer. Studier av sosioøkonomiske og samfunnsmessige konsekvenser av disse økologiske responsene er integrert på alle tre nivåene.

Dette er viktig for at resultatene og leveringene fra flaggskipet skal være relevante bidrag til kunnskapsgrunnlaget for økosystembasert miljø- og ressursforvaltning, forvaltning av kultur- og næringsliv og videreutvikling av bærekraftige kystsamfunn i nord. De tre prioriterte innsatsområdene er:

  • Effekter av klima og andre påvirkningsfaktorer på arters livshistorie og habitatbruk.
  • Effekter av klima og andre påvirkningsfaktorer på trofiske interaksjoner og næringskjeder.
  • Økosystemeffekter med særlig vekt på biodiversitet, produktivitet og ressurstilgang.

Fjord- og kystøkosystemene er kraftig påvirket av menneskelig aktiviteter som fiske, akvakultur, skipsfart, turisme og rekreasjon. Disse økosystemene er også påvirket av arter som ikke har vært her før, eksempelvis kongekrabbe som er en art bragt hit av mennesker. Store deler av kysten er benyttet til bosetting, havneanlegg, industri og landbruk. Kystfarvannene er dermed mottagelig for avrenning fra land der avrenningen medfører miljøgifter og forhøyede konsentrasjoner av næringsstoffer.

Nå står vi i tillegg foran virkninger av menneskeskapte klimaendringer. Høyere sjøvannstemperatur, endring i avrenning fra land og nye vindmønster kan få dramatiske effekter på arter som er viktige både for økosystemenes funksjon og som ressurser.

Naturlige klimavariasjoner har stor betydning for produktiviteten i fjord- og kystøkosystemene. Menneskeskapte klimaendringer vil kunne medføre forsterket effekt av andre allerede eksisterende påvirkningsfaktorer. En faglig utfordring i dette flaggskipet vil være å kunne skille mellom effekter av naturlige klimasvingninger, menneskeskapte klimaendringer og andre påvirkninger forårsaket av virksomhet og aktivitet.

Fjord- og kystøkosystemene inkluderer tidevannssonen og representerer koblingen mellom sjø, ferskvann og land. Dette flaggskipet har derfor klare kontaktflater til andre flaggskip i Framsenteret. Fjord- og kystøkosystemenes tilgjengelighet gjør dem egnet til ”laboratorier” for studier av plante- og dyreliv samt hvordan disse fungerer sammen.

Tilgjengeligheten til disse økosystemene gjør dem også egnet til ”levende klasserom” for læring og bevisstgjøring om natur, ressurser og økologi.

Tverrfaglig forskning på fjord- og kystøkosystemer er viktig for å styrke kunnskapsgrunnlaget for ressurs- og miljøforvaltning og for videreutvikling av lokale kulturer og bærekraftige kystsamfunn.

Examining the role of Fish-Falls on ECosystem processes in highly exploiTed fjord Systems (EFFECTS)

Kontakt: Paul Renaud  per@akvaplan.niva.no

Marine snow. Pelagic-benthic coupling, and the impact of the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica, and other agents in a high-latitude fjord (MICROSNOW)

Kontakt: Camilla Svensen camilla.svensen@uit.no

Population abundance estimation of harbor porpoise from multi-type survey data (MULTI-PORPOISE)

Kontakt: Arne Bjørge        arne.bjoerge@imr.no

The impact of oceanic inflow and glacial runoff on the carbon budget in Kongsfjorden using field and model data (KongCarbon)- Phase II

Kontakt: Melissa Chierici melissa.chierici@imr.no

Drivers of fish extinction and colonization on oceanic banks (DRIVEBANKS): adding management and social dimensions

Kontakt: Kari Ellingsen      kari.ellingsen@nina.no

Impact of massive Winter Herring Abundances on the KaLdfjorden Environment (WHALE)

Kontakt: Angelika Renner      angelika.renner@imr.no

Arctic harmful algae biosensor

Kontakt: Lionel Camus  lca@akvaplan.niva.no

The new generation of Calanus finmarchicus: estimating population recruitment from egg production rates and gonad stage analysis off northern Norway (GONAD)

Kontakt: Claudia Halsband    claudia.halsband@akvaplan.niva.no

The role of harbour porpoise in Norwegian coastal marine communities

Kontakt: Ulf Lindstrøm    ulf.lindstroem@imr.no

weShare – Ecological and commercial implications of extreme winter arrivals of herring and whales into North-Norwegian fjord systems

Kontakt: Martin Biuw

Increased temperature and aquaculture in Arctic regions: Could Atlantic salmon kelts be in harm’s way?

Kontakt: Jenny Jensen      jen@akvaplan.niva.no

Meroplankton biodiversity, seasonal dynamics and function in high latitude coastal ecosystems

Kontakt: Janne Søreide    janne.soreide@unis.no

Mapping sea ice

Kontakt: Sebastian Gerland      sebastian.gerland@npolar.no

Climate-driven regime shifts in arctic rocky-bottom communities: Causation and implications for ecosystem functioning.

Kontakt: Raul Primicerio raul.primicerio@uit.no

Seabird habitat use and migration strategies

Kontakt: Børge Moe    borge.moe@nina.no

Exploring the effects of sea ice variability on the downward flux of biogenic particles in Svalbard fjords

Kontakt: Janne Søreide    janne.soreide@unis.no

Urban kittiwakes: building artificial nest sites in Tromsø

Kontakt: Tone Reiertsen  tone.reiertsen@nina.no

 

 

 

Impact of massive Winter Herring Abundances on the KaLdfjorden Environment (WHALE)
42018

Angelika Renner
angelika.renner@hi.no
Havforskningsinstituttet

WHALE investigates the physical, chemical and biogeochemical environment of Kaldfjorden. This northern Norwegian fjord has recently experienced massive winter herring abundances and high numbers of whales with large effects on the local fisheries, aquaculture industry and tourism. However, the impact on the fjord ecosystem is more difficult to assess as baseline measurements of the fjord environment are missing. In the first two project years, we started filling this gap by conducting monthly surveys of hydrography and water column chemistry in the fjord. Water samples are analysed for potential changes in oxygen availability, nutrients, and carbonate chemistry following the drastic increase in organic matter due to the massive herring abundance. Observations from two moored current meters together with opportunistic surveys will be used to assess water exchanges between different parts of the fjord and the ocean. Observations are supplemented with data from two hydrodynamic models that use different high-resolution model grids. Short-term sediment traps deployed monthly throughout winter and spring 2017/2018 provide information on the impact of the herring invasions on vertical biomass flux. Collaboration with two Fram Centre projects (weShare and Effects) and the NFR project JellyFarm ensures an integrated approach to investigating the physical-biological-human coupling in this fjord system.

 

The new generation of Calanus finmarchicus: estimating population recruitment from egg production rates and gonad stage analysis off northern Norway (GONAD)
112018

Halsband, Claudia
clh@akvaplan.niva.no
Akvaplan-niva AS

The project will continue in its second year in 2019. Data on the temporal and spatial reproductive patterns of the important marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus have been collected along the northern Norwegian coast in year 1. Information on the timing and small-scale spatial variability of reproduction and recruitment in large Calanus patches will facilitate predictions of potential shifts
in recruitment phenology with climate warming. Alterations in reproductive output and/or timing of the peak occurrence of early life stages may affect the ecosystem services Calanus populations provide, especially essential food for the larvae of commercial fish species such as herring and cod.
To measure reproductive output in Calanus we apply two methods: 1) live incubations of females during two cruises and 2) estimates of potential spawning rates from gonad stage analysis in preserved females. The resulting data will complement stock size analyses and Calanus population
stage indexing in the NFR-funded project SeaPatches. In turn, GONAD will benefit from a wealth of physical and biological data collected during SeaPatches to relate reproductive rates to the prevailing environmental conditions. The project will produce valuable and timely knowledge
about Calanus life history patterns that drive important fisheries in Norway.

 

Multidecadal variations in ocean climate, individual fish growth and population demography revealed by redfish otoliths
202018
Hector Andrade
hector.andrade@akvaplan.niva.no
Akvaplan-niva AS

Accurate age determination of long-lived fishes is essential to sustainable fisheries management and understanding the direct effects of climate changes on population dynamics. Our project will improve age estimates of long-lived redfish (Sebastes norvegicus) from the north of Norway and Svalbard by applying advanced techniques from the fields of dendro- and sclerochronology to otoliths. Advanced laboratory preparation, imaging, and statistical techniques will result in the development of long-term, exactly dated, growth chronologies that will be compared to traditional aging methods. Redfish growth chronologies and recruitment histories will be correlated with environmental time series to identify relationships between physical drivers and biological responses. Together, the results from this project will substantially improve our understanding of redfish life history characteristics in the Arctic.

 

Marine snow, pelagic-benthic coupling and the impact of the harpacticoid copepod Microsetella norvegica, and other agents in a high-latitude fjord (MICROSNOW)
292018

Camilla Svensen
camilla.svensen@uit.no
UiT Norges arktiske universitet

Vertical export of organic carbon from pelagic to benthic ecosystems consists mainly of copepod faecal pellets and detrital aggregates (marine snow). However, it is estimated that 20-70 % of the aggregate-associated carbon is degraded by grazing organisms within the euphotic zone. One copepod species believed to play a vital role in particle flux reduction is Microsetella norvegica, but little is known about its ecology and biology.We found that M. norvegica dominated the copepod community in Balsfjord and was associated with marine snow and krill faecal pellets. The measured vertical flux of organic matter decreased with depth, likely due to copepod remineralization processes. We describe for the first time how M. norvegica searches for marine snow, and grazing experiments confirmed feeding on marine snow particles and krill faecal pellets. Egg-hatching rates for M. norvegica was investigated for 5, 8, 11 and 14 C, and the optimal temperature was 8 C. Respiration rates demonstrated a strong increase with temperature. Novelties within the project are: 1) high-resolution in situ mapping of marine snow and copepods, 2) using in situ video-observations and experiments to identify interactions between sinking particles and copepods 3) increased knowledge on M. norvegica biology and its role for pelagic-benthic coupling.

 

CrabPOP – Effects of crab population increase and range expansion on north Norwegian coastal ecosystems
362018

Camilla With Fagerli
cwf@niva.no
NIVA – Norsk institutt for vannforskning

Recent observations and fisheries landings statistics have shown native crab species expanding their spatial distribution and density northwards through Nordland and into Troms counties, presumably as a result of climate change. Recent studies indicate that increasing predation by these mesopredators on sea urchins contributes to regime shifts from sea urchin barrens to kelp recovery. The aim of this project will focus on possible effects of predation by the northwards expanding Cancer pagurus and Carcinus maenas on fauna composition in shallow benthic habitats, and on community composition in recently recovered kelp forests. This will be tested through aquarium experiments, field sampling and stomach analysis of crabs. By sampling in different habitats and in areas of different densities of crabs and different intensities of crab fishery, we will gain knowledge of the crabs effect on ecosystem functioning and how human activity may affect functional diversity in shallow benthic ecosystems. Data sharing and collaboration with environmental economists in MIKON flagship project MULTIHARVEST will elucidate ecosystem services and value of both crab fishery and ecological conditions.

 

Drivers of fish extinction and colonization on oceanic banks (DRIVEBANKS): adding social science and communication with management to ecology and oceanography
492018

Kari Elsa Ellingsen
kari.ellingsen@nina.no
NINA – Norsk institutt for naturforskning

In the Research Council of Norway (RCN) funded DRIVEBANKS-project, we explore patterns and drivers (e.g. climate, fisheries) of fish diversity and turnover, focusing on shallow offshore banks in the Barents Sea. Oceanic banks are hot spots of enhanced productivity where interactions among species are strong. The enhanced productivity on banks are well known for fisheries; fishing activities are often targeted on banks. We acknowledge the experience and knowledge by fishermen on why different banks are used (or not) as fishing areas, as well as movement and variation in fish populations over time and space. In addition, there has been a tremendous change in type of fishing vessels, equipment, and freezing capacity during the last decades, and the fishing fleet structure has changed. Reliable forecasts are important for the fishing fleet for economic reasons. We aim to link DRIVEBANKS to the Flagship Fjord and Coast, and integrate it with social sciences, fisheries economics and management by including additional Norwegian participants. This multidisciplinary approach will provide a platform for communication and the exchange of knowledge between the scientific community and the stakeholders (i.e., fishermen and fisheries organizations), for mutual benefit and improved management of our common marine resources. Specifically, we will focus on how to communicate knowledge and thereby bridging the gap between the scientific community, stakeholders, and the management.

 

The quest for the pole: Are southern species already capable of invading the Barents Sea?
552018

Raphaelle Descoteaux
raphaelle.descoteaux@uit.no
UiT Norges arktiske universitet

Waters flowing into the Arctic from sub-Arctic seas carry nutrients and living organisms including planktonic larvae of marine benthic invertebrates. Because of their week to month-long residence time in the water column, some planktonic larvae have the potential to disperse over long distances before settling to the seafloor. This implies that sub-Arctic species can potentially reach Arctic shelves during their larval stages, though not all find suitable conditions to settle and survive there, at least not yet. There is currently no baseline information on the species composition or seasonality of benthic invertebrates at early life stages in the Atlantic inflow areas of the Arctic. Therefore, this study aims to determine the species composition of the larval assemblage and whether water currents from the south supply benthic invertebrate larvae onto the Barents Sea shelf. Specifically, funding from this proposal will support (1) larval identification through DNA barcoding at a much higher taxonomic level than the ongoing PhD project could otherwise achieve with morphological identification only; and (2) use of an existing particle-tracking model to help trace the area of origin of larvae. Combined, these approaches will determine whether larvae belong to species known to occur in the Barents Sea or to non-native and potentially invasive species, and guide predictions of which species may be expected to enter in the future as the climate continues to change.

 

Fjordic Freshwater Fluxes
582018

Finlo Cottier
finlo.cottier@sams.ac.uk
UiT Norges arktiske universitet

It is apparent that across the Arctic, the cryosphere is changing at an accelerated speed. One manifestation is the increasing rate at which glaciers are releasing freshwater, nutrients and suspended material into the marine system. The circulation within fjords is highly modified by glacial runoff and our ability to model fjord dynamics is dependent on appropriate representation of the freshwater fluxes from the glacier. Further, the influence that areas of high freshwater content have on fjordic ecosystems is the subject of current debate. Ecological dynamics at glacier fronts are poorly studied and the input of subsurface plumes of freshwater discharged from the glacier has been hypothesized to kill or immobilize zooplankton through an osmotic shock. This, in turn, is proposed to impact functioning of higher trophic levels. This proposal looks at the physical and ecological impacts of increased input of freshwater from melting glaciers. We recognize that there is a fundamental lack of empirical data obtained from these challenging habitats, yet a clear understanding of the oceanographic and ecological gradients at the ocean-glacier margin is crucial to understand climate change effects in terms of ocean exchange processes, carbon transport and ecosystem services and food web interactions. Significantly, these regions are very difficult to access and to obtain spatially relevant data in order to map and chracterise the extreme gradients.

 

Planning for coastal climate change COASTCHANGE
812018

Claire Armstrong
claire.armstrong@uit.no
UiT Norges arktiske universitet

Blue growth and the demand for protection of coastal space and nature, causes tension in the coastal zone. Climate change attenuates the above pressures, increasing the need for planning and adaptive measures. In CoastChange we build on the work of the Coreplan project (funded by the Research Council of Norway, to be finalised early 2019), which studies ecosystem services and their incorporation in coastal planning and governance. In Coreplan aquaculture was the main driver of change in the MSP process, while in CoastChange, climate will take this role, incorporating the challenges posed by climate change in current planning, and for future trade-offs and adaptation in the coastal zone. Climate change knowledge production is highly scientific, yet the consequences of climate change are often experienced by local coastal people via their livelihoods. This project aims to explore potential adaptive co-management linked to ES in two case study areas in Troms and Finnmark counties in the north of Norway, with input from Canadian cases. The aim is to assess climate effects on ES, and adaptive measures to meet these changes, in an inter-disciplinary fashion, both within the different social sciences and across social and natural sciences. A trans-disciplinary approach will also be carried out in the development of a multi-stakeholder collaborative round-table.

 

Arctic harmful algae biosensor – continuation
1022018

Lionel camus
lca@akvaplan.niva.no
Akvaplan-niva AS

Increasing ocean temperature is an important factor facilitating the intensification of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Such episodes have become more prominent in the north, posing a threat for human health as well as economic loss for the aquaculture industry. This project aims to develop a HAB biosensor that will serve as an early warning system allowing managers to monitor such harmful events remotely and in real time. We are testing whether a high- frequency non-invasive valvometer equipped to the Icelandic scallop Chlamys islandica can detect in an exposure experiment a simulated HAB event. The rationale is that gaping behaviour of bivalves change when exposed to a stressor and this can be employed for monitoring purposes. During the first year of financial support, we were able to start the experimental culture of toxic algae and built the first valvometer. During the second year, we will build a second valvometer to increase statistical significance of the results, and disseminate this in different fora. If successful, this project will provide the first steps in developing a HAB monitoring network for the northern coast of Norway were HAB sampling stations are limited to only two localities along the whole Troms-Svalbard region.

 

Urban kittiwakes – human/kittiwake co-existence in urban space
1052018

Tone Kristin Reiertsen
tone.reiertsen@nina.no
NINA – Norsk institutt for naturforskning

This is a multidisciplinary project aimed at increasing our knowledge regarding the co-existence of a threatened seabird due to climate change and humans in our urban coastal landscape. Kittiwakes, which are a threatened seabird usually living in bird cliffs along our coast, have increasingly changed their distribution and behavior towards a more urban lifestyle. More and more observations of kittiwakes nesting on buildings and constructions have been observed. This has the potential for conflict with humans and provides new threats to a red listed species, since kittiwakes are known to be quite noisy and messy birds. There is therefore a strong need for more knowledge of inter-species encounter, which has the potential for both conflict and mutual benefits as a result of co-existence in urban space. We will test the hypothesis that kittiwakes are becoming more urban due to climate change, in order to increase our knowledge of how this species may cope and their increased interaction with the human activities. We will also look more deeply into and study the different views regarding urban kittiwakes held by members of the public, local business, wildlife organizations and councils. The knowledge gained from this project will be highly important to urban authorities and management agencies and contribute to new knowledge on human/wildlife interactions in Arctic coastal areas, as well as inform management and policy-making under changing environmental conditions.

 

Freshwater inputs to Svalbard’s coastal waters: Fluxes, fate, and implications for coastal ecosystems (FreshFate)
1092018

Amanda Poste
amanda.poste@niva.no
Norsk institutt for vannforskning (NIVA)

Climate change is leading to increases in the flux of freshwater, sediments, organic matter (OM) and nutrients across the Arctic land-ocean interface. However, despite the biogeochemical, ecological and economic importance of the Arctic coastal zone, key processes and interactions at freshwater-marine transition zones remain relatively poorly understood. The FreshFate project seeks to address these knowledge gaps by carrying out a detailed study of the physical and biological consequences of freshwater inputs in an Arctic river estuary. The project pairs detailed field observations with experiments focused on the physical and biological processes occurring within the Adventelva river plume. We will also link our field observations and experimental results to satellite and in situ sensor-based observations, thus providing important ground-truthing data for future use of these approaches in coastal research. The FreshFate project will improve our ability to assess potential impacts of projected future increases in freshwater inputs to Arctic coastal waters.

 

Seabird habitat use and migration strategies
1152018

Børge Moe
borge.moe@nina.no
NINA – Norsk institutt for naturforskning

Marine biodiversity is under pressure from different anthropogenic sources, and resource- and conservation management needs information on the spatial and temporal distribution of marine animals. Such information about seabirds has been scarce, but new technology has now enabled tracking of a wide range of seabird species. In this project we will use this technology to map non-breeding habitat use and migration of seabirds from Svalbard and North Norway. Our work will be linked to a network of field sites in the Arctic and Sub-arctic, which enable multi-colony comparisons and a large-scale perspective over several years. First, by uncovering the spatial and temporal distribution we can better understand the environmental factors and anthropogenic threats (e.g. climate change, pollution, fisheries) seabirds are exposed to. Second, we may better understand how sensitive are migration and distribution to climate change, and consequently assess different seabirds’ ability to respond to climate change. A crucial point, with high relevance for conservation management, is to get several years of tracking data to evaluate whether long-distance migrants have consistent or flexible migratory strategies. Here we apply for funding for the second year of the project period 2018-2010.

 

 

 

 

 

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